9. Transport and Movement
Transport and movement is intrinsically linked to the use and development of land. The ability for people to get easily to work, schools, shops and leisure facilities is essential to the function of the town.
Movement in Burnley is strongly influenced by the topography and existing patterns of development. The physical separation of the town’s two main rail stations and the bus station has, historically, created problems for the integration of public transport. The urban area of Burnley and Padiham is compact but steep hills restrict the number of people walking and cycling. Major employment areas are located on the urban fringe with poor public transport. In rural areas, difficulty with transport tends to be a dominant consideration for residents. Public transport services are often scarce and communities tend to be highly dependent in the private car. Those without access to a car are particularly disadvantaged. (Rural White Paper: Our Countryside: The Future, November 2000).
Access to and from Burnley to the rest of the country has been improved by the completion of the M65 but the area still suffers from problems of peripherality, especially by public transport. Policies in this chapter of the Burnley Local Plan reflect and address this context.
Transport policy is constantly evolving. Issues addressed in the Burnley Local Plan include:
- Definition of key routes for different modes of transport;
- Improvement of the rail and bus stations;
- Enhancing safety in residential areas;
- Freight movements;
- Assessment of the transport implications of development; and
- Parking provision.
The Burnley Local Plan Strategy contains the following key aim “To secure urban and rural regeneration by promoting quality sustainable forms of development”.
The Burnley Local Plan seeks to achieve this key aim by a number of means. The focus is on integrating land use and transport planning combined with increasing the choice and quality of alternatives to the car. This will be pursued by locating new development, especially that which generates substantial traffic, at places where there is existing, or potential, good access by public transport. Such locations include the town centres, local centres and bus routes with a high frequency. Development of “quality bus routes” creates the opportunity to introduce faster, more reliable and better quality services. Improving walking and cycling routes will enhance safety. Proposed enhancements to the railway stations and the services to them will improve linkages within the sub-region and to national destinations.
All new development will be expected to demonstrate that access by a variety of means has been considered within the application. Major traffic generating proposals will be required to produce Transport Assessments (TAs) and Travel Plans (TPs). This will provide the authority with the opportunity to assess how the transport impacts of developments can be minimised or mitigated.
OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
The Burnley Local Plan Strategy has been designed to reflect, and where appropriate, implement, the integrated approach to transport and land use reflected in national policy, Regional Spatial Strategy for the North West and the Lancashire Local Transport Plan (LTP).
The Transport and Movement policies of the Local Plan have been developed to meet the objectives identified under Key Aim 1 – “To secure urban and rural regeneration by promoting quality sustainable forms of development”. These are set out in the following section, along with targets designed to measure progress towards their achievement.
The Monitoring and Review section of the Plan outlines in more detail how the Council will measure performance against the Plan’s objectives and targets.
TRANSPORT AND MOVEMENT - OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
OBJECTIVE TM1 - To create an integrated, multi-modal transport network
- Target TM1a – To increase to 12% the number of journeys taken by rail and bus by 2010 from a baseline figure of 6%.
- Target TM1b – To assist in the delivery of the East Lancashire integrated rapid transit system.
OBJECTIVE TM2 – To reduce the need to travel
- Target TM2a - 95% of major (over 1,000m²) retail, leisure or office developments to be located in the defined town centres or within 100 metres of a defined transport corridor.
- Target TM2b – Ten Travel Plans (TPs) to be at implementation stage by 2010 from a 2005 figure of 2.
OBJECTIVE TM3 – To increase opportunities and journeys by foot and cycle
- Target TM3a - To increase the percentage of the population cycling to work to 4% by 2016 from a 2001 figure of 1.1%.
- Target TM3b – To construct 25km of additional on and off road cycle
routes in the Borough by 2012.
- Target TM3c – 15% of people to walk to work by 2006.
OBJECTIVE TM4 – To reduce reliance on and the impact of the private car
- Target TM4a – To reduce the proportion of the workforce travelling to work by car by 1% every three years from 2005 based on the 2001 Census average.
- Target TM4b – Traffic growth between Burnley and Pendle to increase by less than 5% by 2010 from 2003 average daily flow of 80100.
- Target TM5a – To develop 20 miles of Quality Bus Routes by 2010 from the 2000 level of 0.
- Target TM5c – Contribute towards the Local Transport Plan target to increase local bus usage in Lancashire 8% by 2008.
OBJECTIVE TM6 – To take an integrated approach to the management of parking
OBJECTIVE TM7 – To ensure new development is accessible by public transport, foot and cycle
- Target TM7a – 90% of new development to be within 400 metres of a bus stop with at least an hourly service between 8.00 am and 6.00 pm, Monday to Friday.
- Target TM7b – All major housing, retail, leisure, tourist, and employment developments to be accessible by public transport, walking and cycling.
- Target TM7c – All new major development to be accompanied by a Transport Assessment.
OBJECTIVE TM8 – To develop effective traffic management measures
OBJECTIVE TM9 – To improve external linkages
OBJECTIVE TM10 – To improve road safety
- Target TM10a – 40% reduction in number of people killed or seriously injured in road accidents by 2010 compared to 1994-98 average.
- Target TM10b - 50% reduction in number of children killed or seriously injured in road accidents by 2010 compared to 1994-98 average.
OBJECTIVE TM11 – To increase use of the canal
- Target TM11a – To support the development of Finsley Wharf and the Daneshouse, Duke Bar and Stoneyholme Canal Corridor improvements.
OBJECTIVE TM12 – To develop sustainable forms of distribution
- Target TM12b – 50,000 tonnes of freight with origins/destinations in Burnley to be moved by rail by 2010.
POLICIES AND PROPOSALS
This section includes the Council’s land use policies and proposals for transport and movement within the Borough and to destinations outside Burnley. Each policy is numbered (TM1, TM2, TM3, etc) and is followed by any land use specific proposals (numbered TM1/1, TM1/2 etc.), which are also shown on the Proposals Map, and a reasoned justification. The reasoned justification explains why the Council have included a particular policy in the Local Plan.
POLICY TM1 - LOCATION OF MAJOR TRAFFIC GENERATING USES
Development of major traffic generating uses will be permitted when:
- they have good access by walking and cycling;
- they are well located in relation to a public transport node or a route with a high frequency of service (i.e. a minimum of two services per hour from 8.00am to 6.00pm on weekdays); and
- they are well located in relation to the Strategic Road Network as defined in the Local Transport Plan.
Where transport improvements are needed, these should be provided before any part of the development comes into use.
Major developments are defined in Appendix D. This policy will also apply to proposals below these thresholds which are, individually or cumulatively, likely to give rise to traffic generation problems.
PPS6: “Planning for Town Centres” and PPG13: “Transport” emphasise the importance of locating major traffic- generating uses in town centres, around stations and along major transport routes. This approach is also reflected in Regional Spatial Strategy for the North West (RSS), for example, Policy DP1 “Economy in the Use of Land and Buildings”.
The purpose of this policy is to ensure that major traffic-generating uses are located where they can be well - served by a variety of modes of transport. This promotes access for all, reduces car dependence, alleviates congestion and increases the viability of public transport. The allocation of development sites within the Plan reflects this approach. There is a focus on Burnley and Padiham town centres which are the main nodes for public transport, walking and cycling.
The introduction of “Quality Bus Routes” and, later in the life of the Plan, Rapid Transit, will create opportunities to provide high quality public transport to serve major new developments that cannot be located in, or on the edge of, town centres.
POLICY TM2 - TRANSPORT ASSESSMENTS (TAs)
All development for major traffic generating uses, including extensions and redevelopment, should be supported by a Transport Assessment (TA). This will be of a format to be agreed beforehand by the Council, and will demonstrate the effects of proposals on transport and road infrastructure. Particular attention should be given to the following:
- existing and proposed accessibility by walking, cycling and public transport;
- whether any existing transport and road infrastructure deficiencies are exacerbated;
- linkages to wards suffering from social deprivation; and
- the adequacy of existing transport and road infrastructure capacity to absorb the additional journeys projected.
If a Transport Assessment identifies particular problems, developers will be expected to provide, and/or contribute to, any on- and/or off-site improvements necessary to accommodate the proposed development.
Major developments are defined in Appendix D. This policy will also apply to proposals below these thresholds which are, individually or cumulatively, likely to give rise to traffic generation problems.
If development is to be sustainable, it is essential to ensure that it is accessible by all modes of transport. Existing public transport or road infrastructure may, however, be inadequate to serve the proposed use of a site. In such cases, on-, or off-site infrastructure improvements may be required before development is allowed to proceed. These may include enhanced public transport services. There may be some circumstances where transport infrastructure cannot be improved to a level to make the scheme acceptable.
All development has an impact on existing transport infrastructure. For larger schemes, it is important that this impact is quantified, in order to show if this is of sufficient magnitude to warrant enhancement of existing provision.
The “Parking Standards” Technical Appendix of the Joint Lancashire Structure Plan 2001-2016 sets out the types of proposals which should be accompanied by a Transport Assessment. PPG13: “Transport” indicates that TIAs, which are strongly focused on predicting the likely impact on traffic flows, should be replaced by broader-based Transport Assessments (TA). The coverage and detail of these should reflect the scale of development and the extent of the transport implications of the proposal.
For small schemes, the TA should simply outline the transport aspects of the proposal. For major applications, the assessment should illustrate accessibility to the site by all modes and the likely modal split of journeys to and from the site. It should also give details of proposed measures to improve access by public transport, walking and cycling, to reduce the need for parking associated with the proposal and to mitigate transport impacts. Where appropriate, a Travel Plan should be included (see Local Plan Policy TM3). Major developments are defined in Appendix D.
The preparation of TAs will enable the Council, in consultation with the Highway Authority, to identify what measures are required to improve the accessibility of the site and to encourage journeys to the site to be made by means other than the private car. Access to the site should be assessed in terms of its accessibility by different modes taking into account journey times, public transport frequency, quality, safety, and access for disabled people. Where there is likely to be an impact on the trunk road network, the Highways Agency should be consulted.
Development comprising jobs, shopping, leisure and services should not be designed and located on the assumption that the car will represent the only realistic means of access for most people.
Where a Transport Assessment demonstrates that improvements to transport infrastructure, including public transport services, cycling and walking, are required, the Council will seek to secure these through planning conditions and/or a planning agreement under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990.
Target: TM7b and TM7c.
POLICY TM3 - TRAVEL PLANS (TPs)
All major traffic generating uses, including extensions and redevelopment, should be supported by a Travel Plan (TP), in a format to be agreed beforehand with the Council. This will include the following:
- targets and mechanisms for achieving reductions in car use, especially single occupant journeys;
- management of parking, including off-site parking if appropriate;
- targets and mechanisms for increased use of walking, cycling and public transport;
- management of delivery and freight movements; and
- provision in the Travel Plan for effective monitoring and regular review.
All new and expanded school facilities should be accompanied by a School Travel Plan.
Where necessary, the Council will secure the implementation of Travel Plans through the use of planning conditions and planning obligations under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990.
Major developments are defined in Appendix D. This policy will also apply to proposals below these thresholds which are, individually or cumulatively, likely to give rise to traffic generation problems.
Travel Plans are an increasingly important mechanism for delivering sustainable transport. Fundamentally, they involve companies and organisations examining the transport impacts of their development and identifying mechanisms for reducing these. They should be undertaken in a comprehensive manner so that actions proposed are complementary. For example, if parking spaces are to be limited, there should be incentives to encourage the use of public transport, car sharing, walking and cycling.
The Council will expect Travel Plans to include clear targets for modal share and mechanisms for reviewing the effectiveness of policies for achieving this. Mechanisms to achieve this such as improved bus stops, cycle shelters and enhanced pedestrian routes may be secured through planning conditions. The use of planning agreements under Section 106 of the 1990 Town and Country Planning Act will also be used in order to secure implementation and to achieve off-site improvements, including contributions for public transport.
For larger proposals, such as industrial estates, and substantial urban regeneration projects, more than one occupier will often be involved. The Council recognises that this creates more complexity than if a single end - user is involved. However, the transport impacts of the development will be just as great. Developers will, therefore, still be expected to prepare a Travel Plan indicating mechanisms and targets for maximising accessibility by all modes and indicating how end-users will be required to contribute to the TP objectives.
School Travel Plans (STPs) will be required for new schools or major extensions (defined as two or more new classrooms). STPs will be expected to promote safe cycle and walking routes; restrict parking and car access at and around schools and include on-site changing and cycle storage facilities.
In some circumstances, businesses and other land uses may, independent of proposals requiring planning consent, choose to develop Travel Plans to address current problems on their site. The Council will support such initiatives.
Targets: TM2b, TM3a, TM3c, and TM4a
POLICY TM4 - TRANSPORT HIERARCHY WITHIN DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS
All development will be expected to clearly demonstrate that the following hierarchy for encouraging sustainable transport has been taken into account in the preparation of the scheme:
Priority 1: Pedestrians, including people with reduced mobility;
Priority 2: Emergency service vehicles;
Priority 3: Cyclists;
Priority 4: Public transport, including community transport and taxis;
Priority 5: Delivery vehicles and motorcyclists; and
Priority 6: Private cars.
Where this hierarchy has not been applied the Council will expect the applicant to demonstrate the reasons for this and the mitigation measures proposed to reduce any conflicts.
Different transport modes have varying impacts on the environment. The private car has brought benefits to many people and greatly increased choice of workplace, shopping and leisure destinations. It will continue to be the primary mode of travel throughout the life of the Burnley Local Plan. However, high levels of car usage are at the cost of congestion, pollution and road accidents. In addition, the location of development that is difficult to access by modes other than the car, together with designs and layouts which neglect other forms of transport have exacerbated problems of social exclusion.
The purpose of this hierarchy is therefore not to penalise the car user but to enhance the range and quality of the alternatives available. Walking and cycling are the cheapest and healthiest forms of transport. Public transport has the ability to move large numbers of people in one vehicle rather than many cars, thus reducing congestion and pollution. Free movement of goods vehicles is essential to the economy. Motorcycles can be less polluting than cars for travel in urban areas.
The Council will therefore use this hierarchy when considering the transport implications of all development, including where appropriate, applying planning conditions and seeking planning obligations under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990. Wherever possible, the integration of movement across modes, e.g. cycling access to rail stations, will be sought.
Target: TM3a, TM3c, TM4b, and TM5c.
POLICY TM5 - FOOTPATHS AND WALKING WITHIN THE URBAN BOUNDARY
The Council will improve the safety, convenience and attractiveness of footpaths within the urban area.
A strategic network of routes will be established with priority being given to the following:
- links into the main shopping area of Burnley and Padiham town centres, particularly from the bus and railway stations, and car parks;
- links to District and Local shopping centres;
- links to schools and other community facilities ;
- in areas with high pedestrian accident rates; and
- routes to and through the urban areas and neighbourhoods identified in Policy H9 – “Regenerating Deprived Urban Areas and Neighbourhoods”.
Every journey involves an element of walking, including journeys by public transport and the private car. Improvements to footpaths are therefore essential to facilitate pedestrian movement around the Borough.
At the 2001 Census, 13.6% of all journeys to work were made by foot. Figures for wards close to Burnley town centre were higher than this. Walking is the main mode of transport for journeys under one mile in length, such as those to local shops and schools. However, even for short distances, the number of pedestrian journeys is decreasing as motor vehicles are increasingly used.
As a mode of travel, walking is particularly important for those without access to a car. This includes women, young people, the elderly and those unable to afford a car. Yet pedestrians are often the most vulnerable highway users due to factors such as poor lighting, speed, noise and pollution from vehicles and difficulty crossing the road.
In order to improve the attractiveness of walking as a means of transport, it is essential that footpaths are addressed as a network. The Council in its own development, and when dealing with planning applications, will apply this policy and the principles contained in the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) document: “Developing a Strategy for Walking” and the Lancashire County Council strategy: “Providing for Pedestrians”.
POLICY TM6 - WALKING AND HORSE RIDING IN THE COUNTRYSIDE
The network of public footpaths and bridleways in rural areas will be enhanced. Particular attention will be paid to maintaining and improving surfaces, signage, footbridges, gates and stiles, the creation of “Greenways” and the designation of “Quiet Lanes” “Greenways” and “Quiet Lanes” are listed below and shown on the Proposals Map.
- Leeds-Liverpool Canal towpath
- Towneley Park-Walk Mill
- Straight Mile-Netherwood Bridge-Rowley Lake
- Netherwood Bridge-Musty Haulgh-Harle Syke
- River Calder-Ightenhill Park Lane
- Whittlefield-Calder Park-Burnley Way
- Padiham rail line-Lowerhouse Lodges-Habergham
- Padiham rail line from Altham Bridge to Molly Wood Bridge (see also Local Plan Policy TM14 - “Former Padiham Rail Line”).
- Mollywood Lane/Lower Rosegrove Lane
- Grove Lane, Padiham
- Igthenhill Park Lane from Nursery to Hunters Oak
- Howorth Road
- Towneley Holmes Road/Deerpark Road
- Rowley Lane
- Mill Hill Lane to Childers Green
“Greenways” are an American idea dating from the 1970s and can be defined as “A living network to provide people with access to open spaces close to where they live, and link together the rural and urban spaces in the landscape” (President’s Commission on the American Outdoors; 1987). In Britain, the Countryside Agency has been instrumental in developing the initiative. Lancashire County Council, Groundwork East Lancashire, Hyndburn, Pendle and Burnley Borough Councils worked together on the “East Lancashire Countryside Recreation Research Project” which was published in March 1999. This examined suitable sites for “Greenspaces” (see Local Plan Policy CF7: ”Outdoor Recreation and Rural Areas”) and routes for “Greenways” to provide access to them. Examples include the canal towpath; footpaths and disused railway lines.
“Quiet Lanes”, promoted in the Rural White Paper, are complementary to “Greenways” and are also identified in the Research Study. They are public highways where traffic management measures such as speed limits, special surfacing and road narrowing make routes safer and more attractive to horse riders, cyclists and hikers.
The Council will support schemes for “Greenways” and “Quiet Lanes” in the Borough.
One of the significant features of the Borough is the easy access from the urban area to the surrounding countryside through a network of public footpaths and bridleways. One example of this is the “Gateway to the Moors” which runs along public footpaths and bridleways from Burnley Central Station to Worsthorne Moor with only one road crossing. The Council will seek to increase and improve such routes.
Bridleways, such as the “Pennine Bridleway”, are another recreational resource enjoyed by both local people and visitors. The Council will seek to ensure that public footpaths and bridleways are well maintained and sign-posted and will work in partnership with other agencies such as the Countryside Agency, the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers and the British Horse Society to achieve this.
The creation of “Greenways” and “Quiet Lanes”, together with enhancement of other public footpaths and bridleways, will be central to the development of an East Lancashire Regional Park.
POLICY TM7 - CYCLING NETWORK
In order to improve the safety, convenience and attractiveness of cycle routes and facilities, a strategic network, shown on the proposals map, will be developed and protected from inappropriate development. Proposals which contribute to this network will be approved where they demonstrate one or more of the following:
- an integrated, rather than incremental, approach to the provision of cycle lanes on public highways;
- provision of off-road routes as part of the “Greenways” project;
- provision of safe, preferably covered, cycle parking at bus and rail stations, at key locations within town, district and local centres and within new development in accordance with Policy TM15: “Car Parking Standards”;
- provision of “cycle friendly” infrastructure such as advanced stop lines at traffic lights and “toucan crossings” of major roads; and
- Transport Assessments and Travel Plans to audit on-site facilities and off-site linkages and identify measures to enhance these.
The Council will actively support the development of cycle-way facilities as part of the East Lancashire Regional Park including the development of links to the National Cycle Network.
The level of cycling to work in Burnley is the second lowest in Lancashire. This is largely a reflection of the local topography, but the number of motor vehicles on the road deters cycle use. Improving cycle links between housing areas and services and employment areas is one way in which to encourage cycle use.
Historically, there has been little investment in both on- and off-road cycle-ways or in facilities such as cycle parking. This has done little to alleviate the stated concern of many potential users about safety on roads and the lack of secure cycle parking facilities. There have been attempts to tackle this, such as cycle lanes on Colne and Padiham Roads and the development of a route along the canal. Cycle lanes have been incorporated in road junction improvement schemes. This has given rise to criticisms that improvements are undertaken in an incremental, rather than an integrated, manner.
The Local Plan’s Strategic Cycle Network is intended to indicate where both public and private investment should be focused in order to develop an integrated network of routes throughout the Borough. The introduction of cycle stands, and where appropriate, changing facilities, will be encouraged wherever feasible.
The Lancashire Economic Partnership (LEP) has won Single Regeneration Budget (SRB) 6 funding to develop a Regional Park covering all the authorities in the area. An integral part of this will be the development of a new cycle-way.
POLICY TM8 - QUALITY BUS ROUTES
A network of “Quality Bus” routes will be introduced. These will incorporate bus priority measures such as the following:
- bus priority at traffic signals;
- bus lanes at the approach to key junctions; and
- bus stops with “raised kerbs” and restriction of stopping by other vehicles.
The following “Quality Bus” route is shown on the Proposals Map:
- TM8/1 - Padiham/Burnley/ Colne Main Line Quality Bus Route. See also Transport and Movement Proposal TM11/2 and Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC8/4.
Bus use has been in decline for many years. There are, however, measures which can be introduced to reverse this trend. One is the concept of “Quality Bus Partnerships” (QBPs) which in towns such as Preston, have increased bus patronage by over 20%. The Lancashire Local Transport Plan (LTP) includes a proposal to develop a QBP covering the route from Padiham to Burnley Bus Station and on to Colne and this is now operational. This includes highway works along the route to give buses priority and the use of “Low floor buses” with specially trained drivers.
If the scheme is successful, it is anticipated that other “Quality Bus” routes will be introduced during the life of the Local Plan.
Target: TM5a and TM5c.
POLICY TM9 - RAIL AND RAILWAY STATIONS
Development which will improve the quality, attractiveness and safety of stations in the borough will be permitted, together with measures to improve linkages to the town centre for pedestrians, cyclists, public transport and taxi users.
The following sites are shown on the Proposals Map:
TM9/1 – Manchester Road Station
Provision of a booking office, additional car parking, bus turning area and a taxi rank.
TM9/2 - Burnley Central Station
Reconstruction of the station at a location slightly to the east of the existing (see Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC8/2).
TM9/3 – Burnley Barracks Station
Improvements to the station’s links with Burnley Town Centre and the Westgate employment sites (see Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC 8/8).
Burnley is served by two principal railway stations, Burnley Central and Burnley Manchester Road, located on opposite sides of the town centre. Other stations are located at Hapton, Rose Grove and Burnley Barracks. Local topography means that the lines through the Borough diverge at Gannow Junction, about half a mile west of the town centre. This makes integration of rail services with the town, and with other modes of transport, difficult.
Burnley Central Station was historically the main station but is now served solely by hourly, all-station, stopping trains between Colne and Blackpool South. The station was rebuilt in the 1960s and retains a staffed booking office, which is the only location for buying rail tickets in the Borough. The existing building is, however, unattractive and 80% vacant. It is not accessible from the adjacent Asda development and is hidden from the town centre by the Anchor Retail Park.
Manchester Road Station is not located within the defined town centre boundary, but is on a major route into the town centre. Served by limited stop “Transpennine Express” services between Blackpool North and Leeds/York/Scarborough, it has become increasingly perceived as the main station in Burnley. The station facilities are, however, spartan with no booking office and an extremely small car park which is usually full. Proposals to increase the current service to a half hourly frequency will aggravate this situation. Pedestrian, bus and taxi links to the town centre also require enhancement. The Local Transport Plan proposes the preparation of a bid to the Strategic Rail Authority to provide a booking office, possibly utilising the former station building which is now in private hands. Burnley Borough Council will actively support the County Council in their intention to acquire land and buildings for this purpose. The Burnley Local Plan allocates land in the vicinity of the station for increased car parking and bus/taxi facilities. This also reflects proposals in the East Lancashire Rapid Transit Pre-Feasibility Study for the X43 bus service to call at the station.
Burnley currently has no direct rail service to Manchester via Todmorden and Rochdale. Re-instatement of the “Todmorden Curve” is to be investigated within the Plan period. Should introduction of passenger services prove viable, the Council would give favourable consideration to any applications to re-open Towneley and Cliviger stations. The Council will review in the next revision of the Local Plan whether specific station sites should be identified.
Targets: TM1a and TM9a
POLICY TM10 - EAST LANCASHIRE RAPID TRANSIT
The Council will permit development which facilitates the creation of a Rapid Transit- based system serving the East Lancashire subregion, including:
- new routes for rail and guided bus;
- new/improved station facilities.
The following site shown on the Proposals Map is identified as a site for a Light Rail/”Guided Bus” Interchange:
- TM10/1 - Rosegrove Station
Part of the Lancashire Economic Partnership’s vision for the sub-region is “a network of connected communities”. Burnley Borough Council, as part of the ELP, fully supports this vision. Currently, public transport between the towns of East Lancashire is poor, as are links to the wider region. This results in low levels of usage, higher levels of car dependence and contributes to the poor image of the area. The Rapid Transit proposal seeks to take a radical approach to reversing this trend.
The Rapid Transit proposal has yet to be defined in detail but is likely to be a combination of rail and street transit.
Pre-feasibility work has already been carried out with detailed feasibility studies currently being undertaken. These will examine the rail infrastructure and identify the preferred routes for guided bus ways and on-highway bus lanes. Rose Grove Station is expected to be the main interchange point for rail-based units and guided buses serving Shuttleworth Mead. The Pre-feasibility study envisaged that these buses would run into Burnley town centre and terminate at Central Station. The roads to be taken have not been finalised.
The County Council has allocated substantial sums of money in the current Local Transport Plan towards developing the project. Partners in the transport industry are also committed to the proposal. Contributions via planning obligations from developments benefiting from the scheme are seen by consultants leading the project as a way of raising finance.
Burnley Borough Council supports the Rapid Transit proposal and will be actively involved as a partner. The inclusion of locations such as Shuttleworth Mead will enhance access to peripheral sites currently poorly served by public transport. It is essential, however, that the development of the system is undertaken in a way which maximises integration between land use planning and transport. In particular, it will be important to protect the role of town centres at the expense of peripheral development or major schemes located adjacent to new Rapid Transit nodes.
POLICY TM11 - TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN BURNLEY TOWN CENTRE
Enhanced traffic management measures will be introduced around Burnley Town Centre. Mechanisms to achieve this will include:
- improved signage, including the introduction of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) at key locations around the town centre;
- remodelling of existing junctions and roundabouts; and
- a review of the existing system of road priorities within the area bounded by Church Street, Active Way, Westgate, rafalgar Street and Centenary Way.
The following traffic management proposals are identified on the Proposals Map:
TM11/1 - Westgate/Active Way Junction.
See also Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC8/3.
TM11/2 - Padiham/Burnley/ Colne Quality Bus Route.
See also Transport and Movement Proposal TM8/1 and Burnley
Town Centre BTC 8/4.
TM11/3 – East Lancashire Rapid Transit Proposals.
See also Transport and Movement Policy TM10 and Burnley Town
Centre Proposal BTC8/5.
TM11/4 - Manchester Road Pedestrian/Bus Priority.
See also Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC8/6
TM11/5 - Mitre Junction.
See also Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC8/7
TM11/6 – Manchester Road/Yorkshire Street.
A major proposal in the Burnley Local Plan First Review was the construction of the Westgate Link road from the Mitre Junction to Active Way roundabout. This would have completed a gap in the town’s Ring Road. However changing national policy means that this proposal performs poorly under the New Approach to Appraisal (NATA) for road building. The County Council has therefore rescinded the project and the Local Transport Plan drops this scheme. It is partially replaced by measures included as part of the Quality Bus Route.
The construction of the new bus station and a new supermarket adjacent to Centenary Way (see Burnley Town Centre Proposals BTC3/3 and BTC3/4) has created a new traffic light controlled junction, funded from developer contributions, at Red Lion Street.
Manchester Road roundabout is already operating at capacity. The existing arrangement makes it very difficult for pedestrians to cross the road to destinations such as Manchester Road Station and the cinema. The County Council is currently investigating options for improving the roundabout. This will also include improved bus access to Manchester Road Station (see Proposal TM9/1).
The Local Transport Plan includes provision for introducing an ITS system in Burnley by 2002, partly funded by developer contributions. This would provide up to date information on any congestion on town centre roads and advise motorists on alternative routes. It is also intended to include up to date information on vacancies within town centre car parks.
Complementary to measures to improve the roads around the town centre will be a re-appraisal of existing roads within the town centre area. This will examine, in particular, the suitability of the existing oneway system.
POLICY TM12 - MOVEMENT OF FREIGHT
Development involving substantial numbers of distribution vehicle movements will be located where there is good access to the Strategic Road Network and wherever possible, potential links to the rail or canal network.
Applications to develop rail freight facilities will be permitted where:
- there is good access to the Strategic Road Network; and
- measures to reduce visual and noise impacts are included.
The following sites are protected from development that might jeopardise their future potential for rail freight use:
- TM12/1 – Former Railway Sidings at Smallshaw Lane
The environmental impact of moving freight by road will be reduced by:
- concentrating development generating significant Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) traffic on to the Strategic Road Network shown on the Proposals Map, or other routes suitable for use by Heavy Goods Vehicles;
- defining, signing and as appropriate, improving, preferred routes for access into the Economic Improvement Areas defined in Local Plan Policy EW6: “Economic Improvement Areas” and shown on the Proposals Map;
- working in partnership with the County Council, the road haulage industry and other partners to reduce the impact of road freight through Freight Quality Partnerships; and
- the provision of dedicated overnight parking for Heavy Goods Vehicles.
All goods into and out of Burnley are currently moved by road. Thus, freight movement makes a significant contribution to the economic prosperity of the Borough, but it is important that this is carried out in as environmentally friendly manner as possible.
One way of achieving this is to channel vehicles along defined routes such as the Strategic Road Network. In older employment areas the movement of Heavy Goods Vehicles is often along narrow Victorian streets, congested with parked cars and creating problems for local residents. Problems similar to this have already been addressed in the Elm Street area of Burnley where improvements were made to the existing road system, which was clearly signed. The Council will work with partners to improve road access and servicing in the Economic Improvement Areas defined in Local Plan Policy EW6 – “Economic Improvement Areas”.
The Local Transport Plan identifies the development of Freight Quality Partnerships (FQPs) as an important mechanism for reducing the environmental impacts of freight movement FQPs involve the road hauliers, businesses, local authorities and other interested parties working together to develop an agreed framework for addressing freight movements, e.g., by agreeing routes. The LTP identifies the textiles and home decoration industry in East Lancashire as a possible pilot project.
The provision of overnight lorry parking can help alleviate the problem of long distance vehicles arriving at unsociable hours with nowhere to park. The Council will work with partners to investigate if such a site is needed in the Borough and identify a suitable location. Such a site may also provide a valuable role in providing parking for coaches that bring visitors to the Borough.
Government guidance in PPG13 “Transport” encourages the shift of freight from road to more environmentally friendly modes such as rail and canal. This is also reflected in Regional Spatial Strategy for the North West (RSS) Policy T7 “Freight Transport”.
In 1999/2000, Lancashire County Council and the Lancashire Economic Partnership jointly commissioned a freight transport study to examine the potential for achieving a shift from road to rail. Burnley Borough Council contributed to this study with particular reference to the disused Rose Grove-Padiham freight line and the potential of Shuttleworth Mead as a rail terminal. The study concluded that, given the costs and operational issues involved, it would not be commercially viable in the medium term to develop the site for this purpose. Instead, it was recommended that a rail freight terminal for East Lancashire should be developed at the Huncoat Power Station site in Hyndburn District, immediately adjacent to the Burnley boundary. This proposal is supported by Burnley Borough Council. The Study also proposed that the former railway sidings at Smallshaw Lane and to the rear of Rourke’s Iron Works should be protected from development that would jeopardise their future potential for rail freight users.
The Railtrack Network Statement 2000 indicated that the Preston – Burnley - Hebden Bridge railway line was being considered as part of a major England to Scotland freight artery. This would require considerable upgrading of bridges, tunnels, etc. but would increase the potential for rail freight emanating from Burnley.
The Leeds-Liverpool Canal is currently designated as a waterway for pleasure boats only. The Council would support use of the canal for freight, although it is recognised that this is a long term objective.
Targets: TM11 and TM12b
POLICY TM13 - FORMER PADIHAM RAIL LINE
The Rose Grove to Padiham Rail Line shown on the Proposals Map will be protected for either of, or both, the following transport use:
- a cycle way, footpath and bridleway as part of the “Greenways” initiative ; and
- a Rapid Transit “guided bus” route.
Particular attention will be given in consideration of any proposal to the impact on residential amenity and the enhancement of the environment along the track corridor.
The retention of the former Padiham Rail Line for freight use has been shown not to be commercially viable in the short to medium term.
The Lancashire Economic Partnership (LEP) Rapid Transit Feasibility Study 1999 identified substantial elements of this corridor for utilisation in a “guided bus” link from Rose Grove to Shuttleworth Mead Industrial Estate. This will considerably improve public transport access to this site. The possibility of re-using the existing track for light rail units was examined but was not considered commercially viable. A full feasibility study examining the technical elements of this proposal is under way.
Use of the railway ceased in 1993 and a study is being undertaken by the Council to examine the potential of establishing a “linear park” along the corridor. Such an initiative is envisaged to feature a footpath, possibly a cycleway, and environmental improvements. The “East Lancashire Countryside Research Project” 1999 identified the former Padiham Rail Line as a possible “Greenway” (see Local Plan Policy TM6: “Walking and Horse Riding in the Countryside”). This could form part of the proposed East Lancashire Regional Park.
In considering proposals for the future of the former railway line the Council will seek to maximise its potential as a transport corridor.
Targets: TM1b and TM3b
POLICY TM14 - TAXIS AND TAXI BOOKING OFFICES
Proposals for new taxi and private hire booking offices will be permitted when:
- the proposal is located in the areas defined in Burnley Town Centre Policy BTC2 - “Secondary Shopping Areas in Burnley Town Centre”, and Padiham Town Centre policies PTC1 “Central Area of Padiham Town Centre” and PTC2 - “Burnley Road Area of Padiham Town Centre” and the District Centres identified in Community Facilities Policy CF11 – “District and Local Centres”;
- one off-street parking space is provided for each taxi operated;
- parking spaces are located on site and, if this is not feasible, no more than fifty metres from the office;
- it does not have a detrimental impact on the character and amenity of surrounding uses, particularly residential, by reason of increased traffic movements, noise, vehicle fumes or other nuisance; and
- the proposal does not create an unacceptable concentration of taxi businesses within the areas defined in subsection (a).
Provision will be made for taxi parking and waiting facilities at bus and rail stations and major retail and leisure developments (over 750m²).
Taxis and private hire vehicles have an important role to play in transport policy, for example, completion of train journeys, late night travel, and transport of bulky purchases for those without access to a car. In Burnley, taxis play a significant role for all these categories of journey.
Hackney cab numbers were doubled in 1999. This has caused parking problems for Hackney cabs notably around the favoured location of the bus station. The Council will continue to liaise with Hackney cab operators about the use and provision of taxi bays at new developments. Taxi bays should be provided in any redevelopment of the two main railway stations.
Private hire provision has also increased significantly in the Borough in the last ten years. A co-ordinated approach to the licensing of vehicles and the regulation of taxi booking offices is now being undertaken. Problems have occurred due to the over-concentration of taxi booking offices in certain locations within the Borough, particularly in secondary shopping areas such as Lower St James Street. Policy BTC2: “Secondary Shopping Areas in Burnley Town Centre” restricts non-A1 uses, which includes taxi booking offices, to no more than 10% of the street frontage. Policy CF11 applies to District Centres. Taxi booking offices, whilst benefiting from passing trade, particularly at night, attract little usage during the day and create dead frontages. This is frequently exacerbated by the unattractive design of many offices. The Council will look for a higher quality of design when considering new planning applications.
Parking problems have been experienced around a number of taxi booking offices in the Borough. This is due to private hire drivers parking close to the office between calls. Control of this practice is outside the remit of the planning system. However, by controlling the distance between parking provision and the office, this practice can be reduced.
POLICY TM15 - CAR PARKING STANDARDS
Development should make provision for the on-site parking of vehicles, including motorcycles and bicycles up to a maximum level set out in standards in Appendix C and any subsequent revisions. Provision for cars in excess of these standards will not be permitted. The parking levels for cycle, motor cycle and disabled parking are minimum standards.
Provision of on-site parking for development is important to prevent congestion caused by users parking on nearby streets. High-quality parking is often an important factor when marketing existing or new property to potential occupiers. Adequate parking is seen as a fundamental factor by retailers and plays an important role in perceptions of the attractiveness of the town centre.
Parking policy has an important economic role but also has a significant impact on the environment. Surface level parking, in particular, consumes considerable areas of land and reduces the density of development. The availability of parking, particularly where this is free, has been shown to have a considerable influence on modal choice. Where parking is easily accessible people are less likely to use public transport.
Traditionally, parking standards have required minimum levels of parking provision on new development. The publication of PPG13 “Transport” introduced the concept of maximum standards where, generally, parking levels should not be allowed to exceed defined maximum levels. This approach was taken by Lancashire County Council in their Supplementary Planning Guidance “Parking in Lancashire” published in 1997 and subsequently adopted by Burnley Borough Council. These standards have been revised and the revised standards are included as a technical appendix to the adopted Joint Lancashire Structure Plan. The revised standards are included in Appendix C. Background information on the revised Parking Standards and their application can be found in the Joint Lancashire Structure Plan Supplementary Planning Guidance “Access and Parking”.
Changes may be made to Appendix C in the light of standards set out in PPG13 “Transport”, RSS and the Joint Lancashire Structure Plan.
POLICY TM16 - MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ON- AND OFF-STREET CAR PARKING
Public and private parking will be managed to ensure that:
- no additional public car parking is developed in Burnley town centre other than replacement provision;
- there is a reduction in the amount of long-stay commuter car parking in Burnley and Padiham town centres;
- short stay parking in Burnley is concentrated at the Cow Lane and Centenary Way car parks;
- long stay commuter parking is concentrated on the periphery of the town centres;
- cycle parking facilities are increased in Burnley and Padiham town centres and other key locations, such as public transport interchanges;
- all car park providers allocate 5% of existing and future provision for powered two wheelers;
- residents-only parking schemes are introduced, particularly in older housing areas with limited off–street parking; and
- off-street car parks reflect current best practice in car park design and safety in terms of:
- safe routes into, through and out of, the car park;
- Design quality, including public art as defined in Environment Policy E22 – “Public Art”; and
The Council and partners such as Initiative Burnley have prepared a Parking Strategy, with particular reference to Burnley Town Centre. One of the main proposals in the Strategy is the reduction of long stay commuter parking in the town centre core. This will create more spaces for shopper and short stay parking in the town centre as a turnover of vehicles would be facilitated rather than one car being parked all day.
Existing on-street short stay parking in the town centre numbers approximately 680 spaces. However there is considerable congestion in the most popular locations. This impedes traffic flow, increases air pollution and reduces the attractiveness of the town centre as a shopping and business destination. Lancashire County Council working in partnership with the 12 District Councils have taken over the responsibility of enforcing parking. Each of the 12 districts have a team of Parking Attendants who patrol the streets and car parks within their boundaries to ensure vehicles have not been parked in contravention of the traffic and parking regulations.
Residents only parking schemes have already been introduced in the Borough. Such schemes restrict parking to local residents with passes, for which an administration fee is charged. This removes the problems caused to residents by the indiscriminate parking of workers or visitors to nearby businesses or facilities. Consultation will be held with local residents before introducing any scheme. This will be supplemented by discussions with the organisations generating the traffic to examine how they can reduce the impact of their activities, for example by introducing Travel Plans.
Car parks are significant users of land and have a visual impact on the environment. Unbroken areas of tarmac have a detrimental impact on the local landscape. Equally, the design, location and maintenance of car parks can have a significant impact on the willingness of car owners to use them. The council may expect developers to enter into Section 106 Agreements under the Town and Country Planning Act 1990, particularly in relation to contributions to the Borough’s successful CCTV initiative and to Public Art – Environment Policy E22.
POLICY TM17 - MANAGEMENT OF RETAIL AND LEISURE CAR PARKING IN TOWN CENTRES
All retail and leisure proposals providing greater than 10 car parking spaces in Burnley or Padiham Centre Insets or within a 100 metre radius of these boundaries will be required to manage parking in such a manner as deters long stay parking. The Council may request a Section 106 Agreement as a mechanism to achieve this.
Retail and leisure development, particularly large food stores, retail warehouses and cinemas often require substantial amounts of parking. Smaller developments can have a significant cumulative impact on total parking provision.
In order to ensure the effective use of car parking in and around the town centre, and, in particular, to prevent the undermining of long stay parking policy, it is essential that there is effective management of retail and leisure parking. For this reason, developers of such projects will be required to provide details of car parking management as part of any planning application. This should include details of charging policies, mechanisms to be used and how enforcement would be undertaken. The Council will normally expect developers to agree to the inclusion of parking management within an agreement under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990.
This policy will also apply to all developments within 100 metres of the town centre boundary. This is to allow effective management of car parking as a whole for developments within easy walking distance of the town centre. (see Local Plan Policy EW2: “Major Retail Development Outside Burnley and Padiham Town Centre Insets”).