4. General Policies
This chapter of the Burnley Local Plan contains a set of general policies that will be applicable to most development proposals and planning applications. The policies concern a number of general matters common to most development whether it be for industry, retail, housing, or other land uses.
- the location of the proposal and the type of development acceptable in urban and non-urban areas;
- design and quality;
- access for all;
- landscaping and incidental open space;
- control of pollution;
- energy efficiency;
- security and planning out crime; and
- mixed use development.
The Vision for the Burnley Local Plan seeks to create a thriving subregional town that provides a quality life for all. This will be achieved by protecting the best elements of our environment and improving the poorest. The general policies contained in this chapter will be central to delivering this Vision.
The general policies of the plan control the location of development directing all new development, not appropriate to a rural area, to within the urban boundary in pursuit of urban regeneration and renaissance. The general policies will also be key to securing quality in new development by influencing and controlling design, access for all, landscaping and incidental open space, pollution, energy efficiency, community safety and planning out crime, mixed uses, and developer contributions.
OBJECTIVES and TARGETS
The general policies of the Local Plan have been developed to meet a number of objectives set out below. Each of these is accompanied by targets designed to measure progress towards achievement of the objectives.
The Monitoring and Review section of the plan outlines in more detail how the Council will measure performance against the Plan’s objectives and targets.
GENERAL POLICIES – OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
OBJECTIVE GP1 - To concentrate all new development, other than that appropriate to a rural area, within the urban boundary.
- Target GP1a – All new development, other than that appropriate to a rural area, to be located within the urban boundary.
- Target GP1b – At least 95% of all new housing to be within the urban boundary.
- Target GP1c – At least 95% of all new employment development to be within the urban area.
- Target GP1d – 5 rural buildings re-used for employment or community uses by 2007.
OBJECTIVE GP2 - To achieve well designed, quality new development.
- Target GP2a - At least 80% of buildings using local materials, or artificial equivalents by 2010.
- Target GP2b - Design Guides produced for the Housing Market Renewal Areas by 2006.
- Target GP2c - 1 Conservation Area Statement produced per annum.
OBJECTIVE GP3 – To foster mixed use development within the urban boundary.
- Target GP3a – at least 3 mixed use allocations developed by 2010.
OBJECTIVE GP4 – To ensure that all new development provides access for all
- Target GP4a – To ensure all appropriate new or refurbished buildings comply with the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995
- Target GP4b - 100% of all new major traffic generating uses no more than 400m from nearest bus stop or rail station.
OBJECTIVE GP5 – To secure landscaping as part of all new development, where appropriate.
- Target G5a - 100% of major developments with landscaping.
- Target GP5b – Use of native species in all landscaping schemes.
OBJECTIVE GP6 – To prevent and reduce pollution to air, water, groundwater and soil.
- Target GP6c – Ensure that Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide and particulate matter levels meet the national air quality standards
OBJECTIVE GP7 – To secure energy efficiency measures in new development where appropriate
- Target GP7a – All new major development to include energy efficiency measures.
- Target GP7b - At least 80% of householder applications to include energy efficiency measures over and above the statutory minimum by 2010.
OBJECTIVE GP8 – To improve security and plan out crime
- Target GP8a - 80% of new development with security measures by 2010.
- Target GP8b – 100% of houses Secured by Design by 2010.
- Target GP8c – Contribute to reducing Burglary Dwelling Offences to within 40% of Lancashire levels by 2009.
- Target GP8d - Contribute to reduction in recorded crime per 1,000 population by 10% by 2011.
POLICIES AND PROPOSALS
This section includes the Council’s general land use policies and proposals. Each policy is numbered (GP1, GP2, GP3, etc.), and is followed by any land use specific proposals (numbered GP1/1, GP1/2 etc.) and a reasoned justification. The reasoned justification explains why the Council have included a particular policy in the Local Plan.
POLICY GP1 - DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE URBAN BOUNDARY
The Council will locate all new development, except that appropriate to a rural area, within the urban boundary defined on the Proposals Map.
Where development of land and buildings is proposed within the urban boundary, but not identified on the Proposals Map, it will be permitted when it meets the following:
- Makes efficient use of land and buildings by following a sequential approach to meeting development needs by considering:
- firstly, the re-use of existing buildings and infrastructure: then
- the use of previously developed land; and then
- the use of previously undeveloped land where this is well located in relation to houses, jobs, other services and infrastructure and is, or can be made, accessible to public transport, walking or cycling;
- firstly, the re-use of existing buildings and infrastructure: then
- minimises the use of water, air, soil and other natural resources;
- exploits existing services and facilities;
- reduces the need to travel;
- is accessible or potentially accessible by walking, cycling and public transport;
- is accessible to all and does not lead to social exclusion;
- does not have a detrimental effect on residential amenity by reason of noise or other nuisance;
- does not have a detrimental effect on the safe and efficient operation of the existing transport and road infrastructure;
- does not result in the loss of an area which makes a significant contribution to public amenity by virtue of its open space character, appearance and function or is proposed open space in a Neighbourhood Action Plan (see Policy H9); and
- does not have a detrimental effect on the Borough’s built and natural environment (see Environment policies E1 to E23).
One of the four strands of the Local Plan’s Development Strategy is to promote urban regeneration and renaissance (see Appendix J). The Local Plan will bring this about by seeking to locate all substantial new development for houses, jobs, shops, offices and other land uses within the urban boundary defined on the Proposals Map. Locating such development within the urban boundary will help protect the Borough’s Green Belt and Rural Areas.
The Urban Boundary is defined on the Proposals Map. This boundary has been carried forward unaltered from the Burnley Local Plan First Review.
The Local Plan’s strategy of concentrating development in the urban area and seeking urban regeneration and renaissance fully complements Policy 2 of the Joint Lancashire Structure Plan 2001-2016: – “Main Development Locations ” and policies DP3 – “Key Towns and Cities outside the North West Metropolitan Area”, EC6 – “Balancing Opportunity and Need”, and UR1 – “Urban Renaissance” of Regional Spatial Strategy for the North West.
The Local Plan contains a number of Proposals for the future use of land within the urban boundary. When development is proposed in locations not covered by these Proposals it will be expected to meet criteria (a) to (i) of Policy GP1, where applicable. This is to ensure that development minimises the use of natural resources, makes efficient use of land and buildings, minimises the need to travel, promotes more sustainable patterns of development, and brings about social progress which recognises the needs of everyone.
In implementing this policy accessibility to public transport will be judged project by project, but, in general, reasonable access to a bus stop will be considered to be 400 metres and to a rail station 800 metres. Factors that will be taken account of in assessing this will include such things as topography, directness of route, and safety.
The definition of previously developed land used in criterion (a) is defined in Appendix A – Glossary and Abbreviations of the Plan.
Targets: GP1a, GP1b and GP1c.
POLICY GP2 - DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL AREAS.
Development in the Rural Areas, shown on the Proposals Map, will be limited to the following:
- agriculture, forestry and outdoor recreation uses not requiring large buildings;
- re-use of existing buildings providing that the building is capable of re-use without complete or major reconstruction and such re-use does not have an adverse effect on the rural economy, or a materially greater impact on the rural environment than the existing development;
- the use of infill sites (small gaps in an otherwise built-up frontage), within named rural settlements;
- or proposals which contribute to the solution of a particular local housing, social, community or employment problem within named rural settlements; and
- other uses appropriate to a rural area, including those which help diversify the rural economy, while being in keeping with the rural environment, see Policies Economy and Work Policy EW11 and Environment Policy E30.
The named rural settlements to which criteria c) and d) apply are set out in the justification to this policy.
All new development will have to be in scale and keeping with the surrounding landscape, to have no negative impact on biological or ecological features of value, and to be consistent with other policies and proposals of the Burnley Local Plan.
The Borough’s open countryside provides a visually striking and attractive setting for the urban area, and is one of our greatest assets. There are strong pressures for development in the countryside. Strict control of the scale and location of development is needed to protect this asset, including its agricultural, landscape, wildlife, visual and recreational value. Protecting the countryside will also complement our efforts to maintain a compact urban area and encourage urban regeneration and renaissance.
Development outside the urban boundary will, therefore, be limited to that suitable to a rural area. The Local Plan recognises that use of the countryside for leisure and recreation continues to grow, and that such efforts often underpin farm diversification.
There are a number of small villages and hamlets outside of the urban area. These settlements are an essential part of the character of the countryside. Their growth will be strictly controlled, particularly to prevent them joining together or encroaching on to the adjoining open countryside. At the same time the Local Plan will seek to balance this need for environmental protection with the needs of the people who live and work in these areas.
Limited infilling and development which addresses a particular rural need will only be allowed in the following named settlements:
- Lane Bottom
- Holme Chapel
- Walk Mill
Hurstwood is a Conservation Area and any development would have to be acceptable in relation to Environment Policies E12 and E13, and any supplementary planning guidance issued by the Council.
POLICY GP3 - DESIGN AND QUALITY
Burnley has a distinctive character. Development will be permitted which would make a positive contribution to that distinctive character and be of good design and quality. In seeking to protect and enhance the Borough’s unique identity the Council when assessing the design and quality of all development proposals will take account of the following:
- contribution to local identity, civic pride and sense of place;
- suitability of the overall design and appearance of the proposed development (including size, scale, density, layout, access, lighting, street furniture, and signage) when assessed in relationship with surrounding buildings, spaces, vegetation, water areas and other features of the street scene;
- use, and where appropriate re-use, of local and traditional materials or suitable artificial alternatives;
- use of space and landscape design;
- movement to, within, around, and through the development;
- originality, innovation and initiative;
- inclusion of energy efficiency and conservation measures;
- use of Sustainable Drainage Systems; and
- adaptability of the building for future expansion and provision of new facilities
Quality and good design are important everywhere, whether it be to preserve the character of a conservation area or to bring about improvement and regeneration of a rundown, inner, urban area. It is also essential to producing attractive, vibrant, sustainable places in which people want to live, work and relax. The Burnley Local Plan will seek quality and good design in all new development, whether the development is that of a major, prominent site or of a more localised nature affecting a particular street, property or group of properties. The emphasis will be on improving the quality of the Borough’s environment by securing quality and good design throughout the Borough.
The appearance of a proposed development and its relationship to its surroundings is a material consideration in determining planning applications and appeals. PPS1: Delivering Sustainable Development makes it clear that good design should be the aim of all those involved in the development process. Quality in new development is also one of the three strands forming the Core Development Principles of Regional Spatial Strategy for the North West.
Burnley has a unique character and appearance, much of this stems from the traditional buildings that still dominate the town. These are mostly of a simple form with sandstone walls, and roofs of stone or Welsh Blue Slate. Design will be expected to enhance this local identity by being sympathetic to local needs and by building on local opportunities. Corporate identities, and ‘in-house building styles’, will be expected to be adapted to the local setting and not the other way around.
This is not to say that development cannot be innovative or different. Innovation, variety and choice will be encouraged where they respect and enhance the local surroundings. There is no reason why local character and innovation should not go hand in hand. In appropriate cases the Council will expect public art to be included within designs, see Policy E22 – “Public Art” of this Plan.
Building design should look toward the future requirements of users and occupiers of buildings by taking account of the need for expansion, changing occupants e.g. the elderly or disabled, and changing need for facilities e.g. increased cycling may lead to a need for greater cycle parking, and less car parking.
When considering movement to, through and around a proposed development the Council will give precedence to the pedestrian, cyclist and public transport user, see Transport Policy TM4.
Many local environments are poor. The condition of existing surroundings should not be an excuse for poor or unsympathetic development. High standards of design will be sought throughout the Borough.
The Council already produces supplementary guidance and development briefs (see Appendix B for a list and their current status). The Council will add to these in the future, and will produce design guidance and conservation area statements. This supplementary guidance will provide a greater degree of advice on what will be required of developers and applicants in terms of quality and design with regard to specific sites, areas of the Borough, and design issues. In assessing design the Council will also use tools and guidance produced at national, regional and county levels, as well as any guidance produced at the village or parish level. With regard to the latter two it may be necessary to adopt any Village Design Statement or Parish Plan as a supplementary planning document.
Targets: GP2a, GP2b, and GP2c.
POLICY GP4 - MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT
Within the urban boundary the Council will permit mixed use development when it:
- does not have a detrimental effect on the surrounding land uses, and the character of the surrounding area;
- is accessible or potentially accessible to public transport and other methods of travel (e.g. walking and cycling) that reduce the need to travel by the private car;
- uses existing infrastructure;
- retains and enhances any natural and built features that contribute to the amenity or biodiversity of the area; and
- integrates with the surrounding area.
Where necessary, planning conditions and planning obligations will be used to ensure a suitable mix of development on a particular site, or suitable phasing of that development.
The following sites and areas are identified on the Proposals Map for mixed use development:
GP4/1 - Finsley Wharf/Lambert Howarth (3.5ha.)
South of Burnley town centre this site is allocated for a mixed-use development incorporating business, canal related leisure and tourism uses, and housing. It represents a significant opportunity to regenerate a canalside site. The mill buildings on the site are prominent from a number of views within Burnley. A sensitively designed scheme, making the most of the canalside setting, and listed buildings, has considerable potential to enhance tourism and leisure in the Borough. A design statement will be expected to accompany all applications.
Development of the whole of the site is preferred but applications for parts of the site will be considered on their merits.
A Transport Assessment (TA), see Transport and Movement Policy TM2 – “Transport Assessments” and a Leisure Impact Assessment (LIA), see Economy and Work Policy EW3 – “New Leisure, Tourist, Arts and Cultural Development Outside Town Centres”, will be required, where appropriate, with any proposal.
In 1994, the Council prepared a development brief for the Finsley Wharf site. This is still relevant in parts. This brief is being reviewed as part of the preparation of the Weaver’s Triangle Masterplan Supplementary Planning Document.
See also Housing and Local Neighbourhoods Proposal H1/10 and Economy and Work Proposals EW1/11, EW3/2.
GP4/2 – Sainsbury’s (1.88ha.)
This site comprising the former Sainsbury’s store, a former petrol filling station, and former retail unit is considered suitable for a mix of largescale leisure and retail uses. Any proposal should retain and enhance the existing pedestrian access to the canal towpath, and should retain views from the canal across the town centre. See also Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC5/3.
GP4/3 – Victoria Mill (0.34ha.)
This Listed Building within the Weavers’ Triangle is considered suitable for a range of uses including general industrial (B2), business (B1), canal related leisure and tourism uses and residential. A suitable mix of these uses may also be acceptable. See also Housing and Local Neighbourhood Proposal H1/6, Economy and Work Proposal EW1/12, and Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC6/1. The Council prepared the ‘Sandygate Regeneration Area Planning Brief’ in March 2001 to assist prospective developers.
GP4/4 – Sandygate Mill (0.39ha.)
This site within the Weavers’ Triangle is considered suitable for a range of uses including housing, general industrial (B2), business (B1) and canal related leisure and tourism uses. A suitable mix of these uses may also be acceptable. See also Housing and Local Neighbourhoods Proposal H1/7, Economy and Work Proposal EW1/13, and Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC6/2. The Council prepared the ‘Sandygate Regeneration Area Planning Brief’ in March 2001 to assist prospective developers.
GP4/5 – Clock Tower Mill (0.28ha.)
This site of the former Listed Building within the Weavers’ Triangle is considered suitable for a range of uses including general industrial (B2), business (B1), canal related leisure and tourism uses and residential. A suitable mix of these uses may also be acceptable. See also Housing and Local Neighbourhood Proposal H1/8, Economy and Work Proposal EW1/14, and Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC6/3. The Council prepared the ‘Sandygate Regeneration Area Planning Brief’ in March 2001 to assist prospective developers.
GP4/6 – Wiseman Street (0.38ha.)
This site within the Weavers’ Triangle is considered suitable for a range of uses including housing, general industrial (B2), business (B1) and canal related leisure and tourism uses. A suitable mix of these uses may also be acceptable. See also Housing and Local Neighbourhood Proposal H1/9, Economy and Work Proposal EW1/15, and Burnley Town Centre Proposal BTC6/4. The Council prepared the ‘Sandygate Regeneration Area Planning Brief’ in March 2001 to assist prospective developers.
The Borough has a compact urban area, with a number of identifiable communities in close proximity to employment opportunities, local shops and other services. Nevertheless, the trend in recent years has been for sites to be developed for large single uses e.g. Clifton Farm for housing and Network 65 for employment. These sites have been on the edge of the urban area and have led to a greater need to travel to jobs and services.
The single use of a site may no longer be desirable and the Burnley Local Plan seeks to encourage mixed use development, particularly in the Borough’s two town centres, and in other areas accessible by means other than the private car. Mixed use need not be limited to the level of a development site, and the combination of uses on a piece of land. It can also be within a single building with one use on top of another, such as flats above shops, or offices above a restaurant.
Mixed use can not only lead to reduced travel, it creates diversity and increases vitality in an area. Large areas of employment or retail uses can be vibrant during the day but become dead at night, conversely, suburban estates can be dead during the day, when everyone leaves for work, but come to life again at night when everyone returns home.
Mixed use will be particularly encouraged within the Borough’s more deprived inner areas, here the aim will be to create revitalised communities – urban villages - with a variety of uses and reinvigorated community life.
POLICY GP5 - ACCESS FOR ALL
All new development proposals which provide goods, facilities or services to the public should make appropriate provision for access for all, including the disabled, mobility and sensory impaired, those with learning difficulties, the elderly, children, parents with children, women, and different ethnic and social groups. The Council will permit development proposals for shops, community facilities, health facilities, places of entertainment, places of work and other uses with public access, including changes of use and extensions, provided that, where applicable, they:
- incorporate the suitable design of entrances and exits, circulation areas, street furniture and pedestrian routes;
- provide accessible parking spaces for those with impaired mobility; and
- include on-site facilities e.g. public toilets, disabled parking, parent, baby changing rooms, ramps, and appropriate signage.
Key Aim 5 of the Burnley Local Plan is to create an inclusive community which meets the needs of everyone. Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development states that Development Plans should seek to reduce social inequalities and address accessibility (both in terms of location and physical access) for all members of the community to jobs, health, housing, education, shops, leisure and community facilities. Councils should also consider the extent to which they can address issues of social exclusion through the planning system. Policy GP5 will be used to ensure that all development proposals are accessible and provide appropriate facilities for all.
All development will be expected to provide full access to those with mobility and sensory difficulties. Each proposal will also be expected to provide appropriate facilities, such as lifts, changing facilities, disabled toilets and parking spaces to ensure that all new development can be enjoyed by all.
Many issues concerning access are adequately covered by building regulations legislation, notably the construction of new buildings, and the Plan does not seek to duplicate these provisions. However, it is important that developers, in drawing up proposals for developments which provide a service, should consider the needs of disabled people and others with special needs at an early stage in the design process. This is particularly important in the case of proposals for the change of use or extension of existing buildings where building regulations may not adequately take account of access issues. The Council will provide further advice on this by issuing a supplementary planning document on designing access for all.
Targets: GP4a, GP4b.
POLICY GP6 - LANDSCAPING AND INCIDENTAL OPEN SPACES
Where appropriate, all new development proposals should include incidental open spaces and a high standard of landscaping to an appropriate scale. The Council will permit proposals which:
- provide landscaping and incidental open spaces suitable in scale in relation to the overall development and its surroundings;
- use native species;
- use existing natural features on site, such as ecology and landform;
- protect and enhance biodiversity;
- include suitable street furniture and lighting;
- provide adequate screening of the development;
- use an appropriate mix of hard and soft landscaping;
- do not have a negative impact on security and public safety;
- include suitable maintenance and management proposals; and
- do not damage public utilities.
Hard and soft landscaping and incidental open spaces make an important contribution to the appearance and setting of a building and its place in the townscape. When well designed and maintained such areas add to the quality of a development and can serve a number of useful functions from greening an area, to increasing biodiversity, to providing places to meet or pass the time of day, to screening unsightly features such as loading and service areas.
Landscape features and incidental open spaces should be appropriate in scale to the size of the proposed development, and should complement and enrich their surroundings. Incidental open spaces should not merely be the ‘bits left over’ from a development, or tagged on to a proposal as an optional extra, they should be planned, integral, essential elements of a proposal.
The Council will expect all soft landscaping to include native plant species, and utilise existing ecology and landform wherever possible. In this way development will be more likely to blend into the local landscape and less likely to introduce inappropriate or alien features into an area. See also Environment Policy E8 – ‘Trees, Hedgerows and Woodlands’.
Targets: GP5a and 5b.
POLICY GP7 - NEW DEVELOPMENT AND THE CONTROL OF POLLUTION
When appropriate, all new development will be examined, in consultation with the pollution control authorities, to assess the potential for noise, light, air, water, groundwater and soil pollution. Development will be permitted when:
- it complies with the advice of the pollution control authorities;
- the location of the site in relation to other land uses, public transport, pedestrian and cycle links, would not lead to increased vehicle pollution;
- the risk and impact of any potential pollution on surrounding land uses, including to health, safety, amenity, and natural environment is minimised;
- there is no detrimental effect on the quality and sensitivity of the local environment, particularly Conservation Areas, Major Open Areas, Rural Areas, and sites with wildlife value;
- it would not have a detrimental effect on sensitive land uses such as housing and schools to any potential source of pollution; and
- it includes adequate provision for future restoration of the land for suitable after uses, when appropriate.
Development that would result in pollution that would lead to harm to the environment will not be permitted.
The development of sensitive uses, such as housing and schools, in proximity to potential sources of pollution will not be permitted.
Burnley, like many northern industrial towns, once had considerable and extremely visible pollution problems. Thankfully, the air pollution from the numerous tall factory chimneys that once dominated the skyline is now a thing of the past. There is, however, no room for complacency and whilst we may not suffer the ‘smog’ of the past less visible forms of pollution such as nitrous oxides, carbon dioxide, and radiation to name but three can still have a harmful effect on people, land and the environment.
Planning should not duplicate the pollution control system and this policy is limited to controlling the location of potential sources of pollution and their restoration and after care should the use cease.
Where development can be shown to have a harmful, or potentially harmful effect on the environment it will be resisted. The local planning authority will consult fully with the Environment Agency and the Health and Safety Executive when appropriate.
When planning permission is granted, but where there may be a risk of soil contamination, such approvals will be conditioned to ensure adequate decontamination and, where appropriate restoration of the land for suitable after uses.
Introducing housing, or other sensitive land uses, in to areas with potential sources of pollution may not be desirable. It can result in a potentially poorer environment for occupants or users of the more sensitive land uses, and can result in unreasonable additional costs for the potentially polluting land use.
Location of development is not only important when considering whether it is suitable to place a potential source of pollution next to a sensitive land use such as housing or a school. It is also an important consideration with regard to number and length of journeys by the private car and the potential for pollution from vehicle emissions. Development that would lead to an unacceptable increase in pollution from vehicle emissions will be resisted.
POLICY GP8 - ENERGY CONSERVATION AND EFFICIENCY
All new buildings, conversions and change of use of buildings should reduce energy consumption and include energy efficiency measures. The Council will permit development when:
- it includes use of appropriate openings, materials and recycling measures;
- the siting and orientation of buildings maximises the potential for solar heating and sunlight;
- it minimises overshadowing from trees and neighbouring buildings;
- it makes appropriate use of landscaping; and
- where appropriate, it includes the use of Combined Heat and Power.
Buildings account for almost half of the UK’s delivered energy consumption and associated Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions. Energy conservation and efficiency measures can help prevent global warming and in the long run save money spent on heating and lighting. The introduction of the Climate Change Levy for industry, commerce and the public sector will mean that it will make even more sense to include energy efficiency measures in new and existing development.
The Council already has a Home Energy Strategy and Planning and Environment Services will support this through its building control and planning functions. In particular, planning can encourage combined heat and power schemes (CHP), and secure more energy efficient site layout and building design. PPS12: Local Development Frameworks identifies the efficient use of energy as a suitable environmental consideration for development plans. Regional Spatial Strategy for the North West, Policy ER13 ‘Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency’, states that development plans should minimise energy use and encourage the use of energy efficient technologies, such as CHP.
By using waste heat to heat buildings CHP schemes can increase fuel efficiency to between 70% and 90%, compared with 30% to 50% for conventional generation. CHP therefore has considerable potential to reduce CO2 emissions and energy costs where a suitable heat load exists. CHP schemes may only be suitable on larger sites, in those cases where CHP does not form part of a proposal the Council will require developers to demonstrate why a CHP scheme has been omitted.
Location, layout and design will be assessed on all development to maximise energy efficiency. When locating development, areas with poor microclimates, such as hill crests and frost pockets should be avoided, and the most should be made of south facing slopes. Higher densities can produce milder urban microclimates. Design should seek to maximise solar gain, natural light and ventilation, increase opportunities to recycle heat and rainwater, and use appropriate materials.
Orientation of buildings to the south is important in maximising solar gain, and the efficient use of natural light reduces lighting costs. Overshadowing by neighbouring buildings and trees should be minimised to ensure that there is no more than a 5% loss of useful total solar gain. This should not be achieved through the loss of existing trees (especially when protected by a Tree Preservation Order or Conservation Area), but in the spacing and location of dwellings. Landscaping can be useful in providing shelter belts and thereby maximising energy conservation.
The inclusion of energy efficiency measures in Listed Buildings will require special consideration and flexibility. Works must not adversely affect the character, architectural or historic interest of a Listed Building (See also Policy E10).
The Council will prepare a supplementary planning document to provide applicants with greater detail on how different types of development can achieve greater energy efficiency.
Targets: GP7a and GP7b.
POLICY GP9 - SECURITY AND PLANNING OUT CRIME
The Council will require all new development to contribute to improved security and crime prevention. The Council will permit development which:
- includes suitable lighting;
- makes maximum use of natural surveillance and defensible space;
- has a suitable layout, avoiding any hidden areas;
- creates safe and secure pedestrian and cycle links, bus stops, car parking, access points, and public open spaces; and
- ensures that any security measures do not have a negative impact on environmental quality.
PPS12 – “Local Development Frameworks” identifies crime as one of the social considerations to which regard must be given in development plans, and Section 17 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 requires local authorities to consider the community safety implications of all their activities. Policy DP3 ‘Quality in New Development’ of Regional Spatial Strategy for the North West asks development plans to improve community safety and plan out crime. Reducing crime will go towards meeting the Local Plan’s Vision of a quality life for everyone.
Crime and community safety is a major concern of people in Burnley, and always comes high on the list when people are asked what needs to be done to improve things in their neighbourhood. Between April 2000 and March 2001 4353 notifiable offences were recorded by the Police.
Crime has many causes and planning alone does not cause crime, but poor planning which reduces security and creates hostile, anonymous environments can increase crime and anti-social behaviour. Planning can also increase security and make it harder for criminals to find targets. And whilst good planning alone cannot solve the problem of crime when co-ordinated with other measures its contribution can be significant.
In planning out crime, the Council will not compromise on design and environmental quality and crime prevention measures will be expected to comply with Policy GP3 – ‘Quality and Design’ of the Local Plan, particular attention will be given to fencing, shutters, the position of CCTV cameras and lighting.
In implementing this policy the Council will consult with the Community Safety Officer and Police’s Architectural Officer.
Targets: GP8a, GP8b, GP8c and GP8d.
POLICY GP10 - DEVELOPER CONTRIBUTIONS
Development proposals that would create a requirement for additional public service provision, or would exacerbate an existing problem or shortfall, will be expected to provide additional facilities, or contribute to remedying the deficiency, on a scale related to the need created. This includes health, education, sport, recreation, library, social service and youth facilities.
Government guidance in Circular 1/97: ‘Planning Obligations’ accepts that local authorities can legitimately require financial or other contributions from developers in relation to off site impact of their development on public services. Consequently, if a housing development creates an additional demand for school places, it would be legitimate to request a contribution towards any extra provision needed. The Council will, in consultation with service providers, require developers to provide additional facilities or make contributions to remedy deficiencies, including, if appropriate, to a fund specifically established for the purpose. When appropriate, a contribution to cover reasonable revenue costs to ensure future maintenance of a service or facility provided will be sought.
This policy only refers to public services. The following policies deal with contributions to matters such as transport (TM2 and TM3), public open space (H7 and BTC14) and training (EW10).